Humayun was the eldest son of Babar who was the first emperor of Mughal Empire in India. He succeeded in becoming the next Emperor. Humayun ruled India for about a decade till he was bitten by an Afghan Emperor Sher Shah Suri. In 1555 AD Humayun regained Delhi with the help of Shah of Persia. Humayun died an unfortunate death in less than a year’s time after his conquer. He felt from the stairs of his own library known as Sher Mandal library. The Persian wife of Humayun named Bega Begum then decided to build a tomb for her husband which was named as Humayun Tomb.
The construction of the tomb started in 1562 and the building was completed in the year 1572. The building is famous as the first building built in the era of Humayun’s son Jallaluddin Mahammad commonly known as the Akbar. The tomb was constructed with the help of Persian architect named Mirak Mirza Ghiyuath. For this reason, Humayun Tomb has a clear influence of Persian architecture. The site for construction was chosen on the bank of Yamuna River adjoining the shrine of the Nizamuddin Auliya a Sufi saint of Chisti silsilah. The tomb was the first garden tomb made in India. This tomb became the landmark in establishing different essential norms for buildings later built in Mughal Era.
The structure is mainly built in red sandstone. The marble is largely used in the borders. The dome is made of white marble. To relieve the monotony black and white marbles have been used. Humayun’s tomb is the first building built in India to use the originally Persian concept of a double dome. The tomb is geometrically placed in the middle of specially made garden. The garden is divided into 4 parts. Therefore the garden is called as Char Bagh. The garden is divided in 36 small squares by grid of water paths and channels. The Persian garden concept was introduced in this tomb firstly which then went on till the period of Shah Jahan.
There are two double-storey gateways on south and west that lead to the enclosure. There is a pavilion at the center of the eastern wall and a bath chamber in present at the center of the northern wall. For entering the tomb’s chamber we have to come through the south entrance. The other three sides have been covered with mesh wire and white marble. In the exact middle of the central chamber lies the tomb. The actual resting-place of Humayun is directly beneath the underground chamber. The roof is surmounted by a double dome made of marble which has huge diameter of 42.5 meters. The dome had pillared kiosks (also called as chhatris) placed around it. Several rulers of the Mughal era have been buried here.
In 1857, during the first independence war, Bahadur Shah Zafar with three princes had taken refuge in this tomb.